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Purchase of aircraft, development of military equipment, and more: What's in security guarantees agreement between Ukraine and US

Purchase of aircraft, development of military equipment, and more: What's in security guarantees agreement between Ukraine and US Photo: President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the United States Joe Biden (Getty Images)

President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the United States Joe Biden have signed an agreement on security guarantees on the sidelines of the G7 summit in Fasano, Italy. The document will be valid for 10 years or until Ukraine becomes a member of NATO.

RBC-Ukraine reports on what the agreement between Ukraine and the USA entails.

Reaction to future attacks on Ukraine

In the event of new armed aggression or threats of attack on Ukraine in the future, Kyiv and Washington, at the initiative of either party, should immediately convene a meeting, preferably within 24 hours, at the highest level.

During this meeting, further steps will be determined and additional defense needs will be discussed. By mutual agreement, decisions may be taken regarding defense measures and deterrence in economic, military, or political spheres, including sanctions against the aggressor or export control.

Military cooperation

The United States commits to further strengthening military cooperation with Ukraine in the field of defense and security as a means of building the future Armed Forces of Ukraine. Such cooperation may include:

  1. Training and military education programs;
  2. Provision of defense articles and services;
  3. Combined military maneuvers and exercises;
  4. Increased defense industrial cooperation consistent with applicable agreements and arrangements between the Parties;
  5. Continued joint planning to confront threats to the Parties, including guiding principles, respective rules of engagement, and command and control, as appropriate;
  6. Cooperation to promote cybersecurity and protection of critical infrastructure;
  7. Cooperation to develop Ukraine’s capabilities to counter Russian and any other propaganda and disinformation;
  8. Cooperation to promote regional peace and security in the Black Sea;
  9. Cooperation to support unexploded ordnance removal and demining;
  10. Other cooperation as may be mutually decided upon by the Parties.

Furthermore, coordination on military and defense matters between Ukraine and the United States should take place on a regular basis (at least once a year), with particular attention to joint efforts to deter and counter aggression threats against Ukraine.

Kyiv and Washington also agree to facilitate proper exchange of intelligence information and deepen cooperation between their intelligence services, the scope and procedures of which will be determined by their respective authorities responsible for intelligence and security. The United States intends to assist in building the intelligence capabilities of Ukraine, especially in the field of counterintelligence.

Reforms on the path to the EU and NATO

Ukraine and the USA have agreed to cooperate in implementing reforms of democratic, economic, defense, and security institutions on the path to the EU and NATO.

Accordingly, among other reforms, Ukraine should:

  • Strengthening Ukrainian justice sector reform to promote the independence and integrity of the judiciary;
  • Implementing robust anti-corruption measures, including strengthening all independent state anti-corruption institutions such as the Specialized Anti-Corruption Prosecutor and the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine;
  • Implementing reforms in law enforcement, security, tax, and customs institutions to resolve jurisdictional issues, and to improve transparency and accountability, and strengthen the rule of law;
  • Bolstering corporate governance to meet Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development principles in state-owned and defense enterprises to encourage foreign investor confidence and investment;
  • Adopting NATO standards of transparency, accountability, and competition in the management and oversight of security and procurement policy and practice;
  • Transforming defense planning and resource management systems to increase transparency, improve efficiency, and increase interoperability with NATO;
  • Reorganizing command and control structures in accordance with NATO principles to increase interoperability and ensure effective civilian oversight; and
  • Modernizing defense human resource management and military education systems to align with NATO principles and standards.

Furthermore, the United States, in the agreement, reaffirms that Ukraine's future lies in NATO. The parties acknowledge that this agreement serves as a step toward Ukraine's future membership in the Alliance.

Development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

The United States intends to support Ukraine's military strength as well as the development and transformation of its military capabilities by providing weapons, equipment, training, and other assistance in coordination with partners across various spheres.

Air and missile defense

The United States commits to supporting Ukraine in building a multi-layered, integrated air and missile defense system.

Kyiv and Washington intend to take further steps to transition Ukraine to a modern air defense architecture with corresponding radars, interceptors, and auxiliary equipment across the spectrum of capabilities from tactical to strategic levels.

Firepower capability

The United States commits to supporting Ukraine in developing joint firepower capabilities, including the acquisition of ground systems, ammunition, and targeting assets for conducting indirect and long-range fires, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles.

The parties to the agreement intend to continue purchasing ammunition stocks for Ukraine's use in coordination with allies and partners, while also developing internal capacity for ammunition production in Ukraine.

Ground maneuver

The United States commits to supporting the development of Ukraine's doctrine and capabilities in the area of mobility and maneuver, including support for existing armored, mechanized, and motorized forces and assets, as well as collaborating with allies and partners to support the acquisition of modern platforms to meet Ukrainian maneuver forces' needs.

Air force

The United States commits to coordinating with Ukraine and primarily working through allied consortia on the modernization of the Ukrainian Air Force, including the procurement of squadrons of modern fighters, provision, armament, and relevant training to support capabilities of fourth-generation fighters (including but not limited to multi-role F-16 aircraft), as well as other air assets such as transport and reconnaissance, surveillance, and intelligence platforms (including unmanned ones).

Maritime sphere

In coordination with allies and partners, the United States commits to supporting the enhancement of Ukraine's capability to defend its territorial waters and contribute to regional security in the Black Sea through means that may include:

  • Coastal defense systems,
  • Maritime domain awareness,
  • Unmanned systems and surface vessels, including patrol and riverine ships,
  • Naval firepower,
  • Anti-mine warfare assets.

Additionally, other types of armaments that contribute to strengthening maritime security in the Black and Azov Seas, as well as help Ukraine assert sovereignty over its territorial waters, sovereign rights, and jurisdiction in its exclusive economic zone.

Furthermore, the United States commits to assisting Ukraine in strengthening its Armed Forces in the areas of cybersecurity, critical infrastructure protection, command and control, as well as logistics support.

Cooperation in defense industry development

The United States commits to cooperating with allies and partners to support Ukraine's economic recovery and strengthen its defense-industrial base, including through joint defense research and development.

Ukraine, on its part, commits to developing and reforming its defense industry to support and meet the needs of its security and defense forces. Ukraine also pledges to enhance control over foreign direct investments for national security reasons.

The United States intends to collaborate with Ukraine to enable Ukrainian enterprises to repair key systems and manufacture parts to facilitate effective maintenance by providing raw materials and technical expertise, financing, and licensing for technology transfer.

Term of the agreement

The agreement will be valid for 10 years and may be extended by mutual agreement. If Ukraine becomes a NATO member before the agreement expires, the parties will discuss its further future. The text of the agreement may be amended by mutual consent.

Ukraine and the USA plan to register this agreement with the UN within 60 days from its entry into force.

However, the document also provides the right for either party to withdraw from the agreement. To do so, a written notice must be sent through diplomatic channels. Withdrawal from the agreement takes effect six months after the date of such notification.

The full text of the agreement between Ukraine and the USA is available at the provided link.

Sources: the text of the security agreement between Ukraine and the USA, published by the Office of the President of Ukraine.