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Money, weapons, and more: Closer look at Britain's security guarantees for Ukraine

Money, weapons, and more: Closer look at Britain's security guarantees for Ukraine Rishi Sunak and Volodymyr Zelenskyy at the signing of the agreement in Kyiv (Vitalii Nosach, RBC-Ukraine)

Ukraine and the United Kingdom have signed an agreement on security cooperation. It provides guarantees of financial, military, and other forms of support. More details on the specifics of British security guarantees and their duration can be found in the material by RBC-Ukraine.

During the preparation of the material, the agreement on cooperation in the field of security between Ukraine and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was utilized.

In the preamble, Ukraine and the United Kingdom express their determination to permanently halt unprovoked Russian attacks, which pose a threat to security in Europe and the world. They are also committed to the integrity of Ukraine within its 1991 borders and ensuring its ability to defend itself and choose its own future.

Scope of application

The agreement builds upon the declaration of Ukraine and G7 countries, adopted in Vilnius on July 12, 2023, and is rooted in the agreement of October 8, 2020, serving as the basis for cooperation between Ukraine and the UK.

With this current treaty, the parties aim to strengthen cooperation and partnership based on shared interests in upholding international order, peace, and the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms.

The UK believes that Ukraine's future NATO membership will contribute effectively to peace and stability in Europe. The key components of security commitments provided by the United Kingdom include:

  • Providing comprehensive assistance to Ukraine for the protection and restoration of territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders, including territorial waters and the free economic (maritime) zone, economic recovery, and the protection of its citizens.
  • Prevention and active deterrence and resistance to any military escalation or new aggression from the Russian Federation.
  • Support for Ukraine's future integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions, including support for Ukraine's reform plans and compatibility with NATO.

Defense and military cooperation

The United Kingdom will support Ukraine as much as needed for it to defend itself effectively.

Through the new agreement, the participants will work on ensuring robust forces capable of protecting Ukraine both now and in deterring Russian aggression in the future. This includes providing assistance in security and the supply of modern military equipment on land, in the air, at sea, in space, and cyberspace. The priorities include anti-air defense, artillery, long-range strike capabilities, armored vehicles, and combat aviation.

Additionally, the UK will provide long-term consultations and support for defense management and policy. Together with other partners, it will assist Ukraine in enhancing the deterrence of external aggression through the development of a modern defense sector by:

  • Supporting Ukraine's potential and training, as well as the infrastructure necessary for controlling its airspace.
  • Supporting the development of the Navy and the Sea Guard of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (demining, maritime intelligence, patrolling, coastal protection, and ensuring freedom of navigation).
  • Supporting the development of the Armed Forces, transitioning to NATO concepts and procedures, joint exercises, and strengthening operational compatibility with allies.
  • Supporting border protection, engineering and fortification arrangements, observation, monitoring of enemy troop movements.

The United Kingdom will make significant contributions to the coalition of capabilities for Ukraine, including maritime security, military air forces, anti-air defense, artillery, armored vehicles, and providing other weapon systems and ammunition.

In 2024, Britain will provide additional support worth £2.5 billion (almost $3.2 billion).

Maritime security

Britain will lead the Maritime Security Capabilities Coalition and make a significant contribution to the development of Ukraine's maritime fleet. The goal of this coalition is to support Ukraine in becoming a full-fledged contributor to maritime security in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov by 2035 and beyond.

Defense industry

London will work on developing Ukraine's defense-industrial base, fostering mutual commercial benefits and coordination. It will also encourage its defense to invest, including through the localization of production in Ukraine.

British companies will further encourage the localization of repair and maintenance of defense products in Ukraine. The UK pledges to transfer necessary technologies, and Ukraine guarantees their protection. Both parties will exchange information on research and development in the defense sector under joint projects and programs.

Critical infrastructure protection

The United Kingdom will facilitate the development of Ukraine's critical infrastructure protection capabilities, involving Ukrainian experts in implementing such projects on its territory and seeking sources of funding to ensure infrastructure resilience in various sectors.

Security and cybersecurity

The parties will collaborate on intelligence and security, allowing Ukraine to detect, restrain, and counter Russian aggression, espionage, and hybrid warfare through the exchange of intelligence data.

The agreement participants intend to implement a joint protocol for deterring and responding to cyber attacks from Russia, its satellites, and pro-Russian hacker groups.

Information security

To counter Russian information manipulation and propaganda globally, the parties will:

  • Enhance Ukraine's capabilities to resist these threats.
  • Engage in international communication, offering the world a truthful alternative to Russian disinformation.
  • Develop educational and training programs, increase the exchange of expertise among information security professionals.

Political cooperation, peace, and sanctions

The United Kingdom welcomes Ukraine's efforts to establish a fair and sustainable peace, including based on the principles of the Peace Formula. It is ready to play a leading role in implementing peaceful initiatives.

As long as the aggression continues, London remains committed to imposing harsh sanctions against sectors of the Russian economy and individuals residing abroad who support, benefit from, or facilitate the circumvention of sanctions.

The parties are supportive of holding accountable those responsible for war crimes and seeking compensation from the Russian Federation for the damages inflicted by the war.

Support and recovery

The United Kingdom aims to build a modern, resilient, and stable Ukrainian economy integrated into global markets, impervious to Russian influence, and based on strong and accountable institutions with respect for the rule of law.

The parties will develop a partnership in humanitarian demining, and the UK will support the State Emergency Service of Ukraine through the Partnership Fund for Resilient Ukraine.

Kyiv commits to fulfilling the full set of political requirements outlined in the IMF program by 2027, and London pledges to support the goals of the IMF program. Additionally, the British side will work on facilitating access to its financial companies, institutions, the insurance industry, the technological sector, and other areas. For this purpose:

  • The UK-Ukraine Political, Free Trade & Strategic Partnership Agreement will remain in effect.
  • Measures will be devised to enhance investor confidence.
  • Investments in the technological sector will be supported to ensure a more modern and innovative economic future for Ukraine and improve the efficiency of digital governance.

In a prioritized manner, the participants will continue working with other partners, including G7 countries, to explore options for developing mechanisms to compensate for damages caused by Russian aggression.

Commitments to reforms

Ukraine commits to continuing institutional governance reform, including the reform of the judicial system, developing the potential and capacity to prevent corruption in the public and private sectors, civil society, and modernizing the economy.

In the security and defense sector, democratic civilian control over the Armed Forces (a crucial condition for NATO membership) will be strengthened, and procurement processes will be improved.

In case of future attack on Ukraine

Any future Russian invasion will violate the UN Charter and fundamental principles of international law, seriously undermining Euro-Atlantic security, including the security of the United Kingdom.

In the event of armed aggression by Russia against Ukraine, the participants will hold consultations within 24 hours to determine measures necessary to counter or restrain aggression.

Under such circumstances, the United Kingdom commits to providing swift and sustained security assistance, modern military equipment in all necessary areas, as well as economic aid. Additionally, economic and other sanctions will be imposed on Russia.


The Agreement on Security Co-operation came into effect on January 12, 2024, and will be valid for 10 years.

The participants intend to maintain it for the duration of Ukraine's path to NATO membership. If Ukraine joins NATO within 10 years, the parties will adopt a separate decision regarding the future status of the guarantees.

Any participant can terminate this agreement, and the action ceases six months from the date of receiving such notice. Changes and additions can be made by mutual agreement in writing.

It's worth noting that, as reported by the informed source RBC-Ukraine, the Agreement on Security Co-operation has appendices with limited access.