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How to recognize dangerous disease in animals and humans: Symptoms and prevention

How to recognize dangerous disease in animals and humans: Symptoms and prevention How to recognize rabies in animals (photo:

Diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans are called rabies. It is an acute infectious disease caused by a neurotropic virus. In the case of rabies, if vaccination is not administered promptly, the disease can pose a threat to both health and life.

RBС-Ukraine provides detailed information on how to recognize and prevent rabies infection to save the life of your pet.

Sources used in preparing the material include the website of the Main Department of the State Production and Consumer Service in the Chernivtsi region and the website of the Public Health Center.

Causes of rabies infection

An animal can become infected with the virus anywhere after coming into contact with it. For humans, the primary source of infection is carnivorous wild and domestic animals. A person can become infected with the rabies virus from a rabid animal through:

  1. Bites
  2. Scratches and minor skin injuries
  3. Contact with contaminated rabies virus-infected saliva on mucous membranes.

Most commonly, humans contract rabies from cats and dogs among domestic animals and foxes and wolves in the wild. The rabies virus can also be carried by bats and their habitats, such as caves.

Airborne contact transmission is a proven possibility: the virus can passively enter through the conjunctiva or mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Transmission can also occur during organ transplants from deceased individuals who have rabies.

How to recognize rabies in animals

The progression of rabies in animals differs from that in humans. In animals, it is divided into several stages.

Initial Stage (lasts up to five days):

  • Presence of bite marks
  • Biting the affected area
  • Affectionate but cautious behavior
  • Weak appetite
  • Eating unusual objects
  • Excessive salivation
  • Vomiting

Excited Stage (two to three days):

  • Aggressive behavior
  • Restlessness
  • Attacking
  • Attempting to escape
  • Biting objects
  • Eating unusual objects
  • Convulsions
  • Vomiting
  • Paralysis
  • Strabismus (crossed eyes)

Paralytic Stage (two to four days):

  • Exhaustion
  • Complete paralysis
  • Death

Людина також може заразитися. Як розпізнати небезпечну хворобу у тварин: симптоми та профілактика

A common symptom of rabies in animals is excitement and aggression (illustrative photo: Pixabay)

In humans, the incubation period of rabies can last from one week to three months, but it can extend to one to three years, depending on several factors:

  • Location, number, and depth of the bites (the most dangerous are bites to the face and head)
  • The amount and activity of the virus that entered the wound
  • The age of the affected person (children are more vulnerable than adults).

The initial symptoms of rabies are characterized by an elevated body temperature, pain, and a tingling or burning sensation at the site of the bite. Once symptoms of the disease appear, it almost always ends fatally.

However, depending on the form of the disease, there are two main types of rabies: furious (active) rabies and paralytic rabies.

For people with furious (active) rabies, symptoms include hyperactivity, fear of water, and even muscle spasms or exposure to fresh air. Death occurs within a few days due to cardiac or respiratory arrest.

The paralytic form of rabies has a longer duration and a milder course than the active form. Muscles gradually become paralyzed, starting from the site of the bite or scratch. Coma develops slowly, leading to death.

What to do if you are bitten by a rabid animal

If you have been bitten by a potentially rabid animal, the first step is to seek medical attention. If you cannot do so immediately, thoroughly wash the wound with soap and water for at least 15 minutes. You can also use disinfectants used for wound care in surgical practice or other suitable products.

Choose products containing 70% alcohol or a 5% iodine solution to disinfect the wound. They can help neutralize the virus.

Afterward, be sure to seek medical assistance.

The treatment of rabies involves hospitalization and the administration of a rabies vaccine. It prevents the onset of the disease in 96-99% of cases.

How to prevent rabies

To begin with, it is necessary to prevent animals from contracting rabies. To do this:

  1. Regularly vaccinate domestic and wild animals by distributing bait with vaccines in their habitats.
  2. Avoid contact with potentially dangerous animals.
  3. Do not touch wild or stray animals.
  4. Do not feed stray animals in places frequented by people, especially children.
  5. Follow the rules for keeping animals.

The development of rabies can be completely avoided by following these recommendations, and in the event of a bite, seek professional help immediately.

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Also, you can find out which species of animals could disappear without a trace from the face of the Earth.

This material is for informational purposes only and should not be used for medical diagnosis or self-treatment. Our goal is to provide readers with accurate information about symptoms, causes, and methods of detecting diseases. RBС-Ukraine is not responsible for any diagnoses that readers may make based on materials from the resource. We do not recommend self-treatment and advise consulting a doctor in case of any health concerns.